Hands with handcuff - The Guide to Criminal Justice System

There is limited awareness of the Criminal Justice System among citizens in Pakistan. As a result, in the case that individuals encounter a crime, whether they are the victimized or the accused, they lose out on the most strategic ways to navigate such situations. And so, perpetrators of crime either get away with their acts or those who have been falsely accused end up in jail. This blog aims to take you through the workings of the criminal justice system in Pakistan.


The Criminal Justice System (CJS) is the set of laws, principles, and procedures intended to process cases against accused persons and subsequently, hold those guilty, accountable in ways that the law prescribes. The purpose of our CJS is to control crime, prevent crime, punish offenders, protect the innocent, get justice for victims, and maintain a fair degree of cohesion and stability in society. The system describes the offences, punishments, procedures, and ways to punish those who violate laws of the society.

The three main contributors/agencies of the Criminal Justice System are:

  • Courts
  • Prosecution
  • Police

And, the two main laws governing the Criminal Justice System are:

  • The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898
  • The Pakistan Penal Code, 1860

STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS (Criminal Justice System CJS)

So how does it Criminal Justice System (CJS) actually work in the practical world?

Step 1: Register the FIR

The process begins with registering the FIR (First Information Report). It is the responsibility of the victim to reach out to the police and register the FIR as soon as possible. But it’s seen that there’s normally a delay between the occurrence of a crime and the filing of complaints. Such delays hamper the victim’s case and can also be held against them in a court of law. Therefore, it’s essential to create awareness among people and urge them to file an FIR as soon as possible after the crime occurs.

Step 2: Police Investigation & Inquiry

After filing an FIR, the next step is the investigation and inquiry of the case. It’s carried out by the Police’s Investigation Officer (IO) who handles the crime scene, collects the evidence of the offence committed and records the statements of the eyewitnesses, the accused, and potential suspects. The IO is supposed to be a competent officer who maintains an unbiased approach throughout the investigation and inquiry. Unfortunately, evidence handling and collection aren’t carried out properly and the sanctity of the crime scene, and the evidence, aren’t preserved in Pakistan, which can have an adverse impact on the case. Once the investigation and inquiry stage is complete, the police draw up an investigation challan which is the final and conclusive investigation report.

Step 3: Criminal Prosecution and Trials

Once the IO submits the investigation challan, the accused is charged and the trial properly commences. The public prosecutor (a lawyer appointed by the state) pleads the case for the complainant/victim of a crime (albeit to assist the prosecution; the complainant is free to hire a private lawyer) while a defense lawyer pleads the case on behalf of the accused against the offences charged against him/her. The prosecutor assists the court in the trial by examining the witnesses and the evidence available against the accused. Thereafter, the defense is given a chance to examine the witnesses and prove that the evidence presented in the court is not enough to punish the accused. If there is an alibi, then the defense provides proof. If the defendant pleads that the accused is insane then a medical board sits and assesses the mental health status of the accused.

Step 4: Adjudication

After the trial and prosecution, the role of the judge comes into play. Based on the trial that took place in the court and the eyewitnesses and evidence presented, the judge makes a rational decision based on the requisite laws of Pakistan.

Step 5: Implementation of Verdict

Once the trial is concluded and justice is served, the Accused either receives his punishment or is set free by the court. However, there are also ways to reduce or nullify the punishment. One of them is Deeyat (or Blood Money) where the victim or the inheritor (in case of the victim’s absence) can receive compensation for the crime caused and the accused is freed. In some cases, the court can rule out this possibility and still punish the criminal.

The sentence can be also reduced by the court if and only if the Criminal Justice System finds that the convict is displaying exemplary behavior and conduct, or due to a severe medical condition.

Get Help – Hire a Criminal Law Expert

Being involved in a crime, whether as a victim or as an accused, is a traumatic and unsettling experience. Mistakes at the early stages of a crime can prove to be fatal when matters come to trial. Thus, it is best to get professional advice to guide and assist you through the whole process for several reasons. The lawyers at Sardar & CO. are well-equipped and experienced to deal with all such matters. You should consult Sardar & Co. for several reasons:

  • Sardar & Co. cares about you as it has one job which is to be your advocate at the trial. It is our job to protect your rights and to voice your best interest. assess the situation and form a plan to take the actions required to facilitate positive outcomes for you.
  • You are hiring an expert and as such, we can devote our energy and time solely to building a solid case on your behalf.
  • Prompt action can lead to mitigation, the earlier you take action for your case the higher the likelihood of a successful case. Do not let delays or faulty police investigations ruin your case.
  • You may be facing heavy penalties because of what is at stake in your case. You may think you are innocent but you need to take every action available to ensure that your innocence is proven and you do not suffer. You need someone who will protect you against such injustice.

Long-term financial benefits, while this seems contradictory, hiring an experienced criminal lawyer can reduce the costs associated with criminal charges in the long run.


Inheritance Laws in Pakistan

As Muslims, there is an obligation to ensure the proper distribution of wealth upon death. Doing so constitutes an act of worship to Allah. In Islam, a person is only a trustee of wealth, and the inheritance law in Pakistan ensures that the wealth is to be distributed fairly amongst the legal heirs according to Shariah. However, most people residing in Pakistan are not aware of their rights under inheritance laws or the rules and procedures associated with it, therefore, a lack of basic knowledge leads to unfair distribution and at times people, mostly women, and children are unjustly robbed of inheritance.

This article provides a brief overview of how the distribution of inheritance in Pakistan works:

Property Distribution – Islamic Inheritance Laws

Pakistan – being an Islamic republic – follows the Shariah law in the case of transferring properties after the death of a blood relative. To enact the Shariah law in Pakistan, the following two laws are used:

  • Muslim family law ordinance. 1961
  • The West Pakistan Muslim Personal Law, 1962


The primary duty of utmost priority according to Islamic law is to make sure that the funeral expenses of the deceased are paid off from the wealth of the deceased before any distributions of the wealth are made. As there are many aspects of funeral expenses, including unconventional cultural duties such as feeding the attendees of the burial, there is a consensus among scholars that the activities that must be paid for include washing, shrouding the deceased, and burying him. Any further ceremonial activities should not be paid for from the wealth of the deceased.


Before the distribution of any property of the Deceased takes place, it’s important to first clear off all the debts of that individual. This includes the dower amount (Haq Meher) of the wife, in the event that the deceased person is her husband, which if left unpaid at the time of marriage should be cleared. Distribution of the wealth before clearing all debts and liabilities is unlawful and should be strictly avoided by the legal heirs.


If the deceased person has left behind a will, that needs to be honored after the clearing of all debts. However, under Islamic law, only one-third of the deceased’s total assets can be given this way and the remaining assets are to be distributed amongst the rightful legal heirs.


Although the division of the estate can differ depending on the sect the deceased belongs to, most commonly, it is distributed in accordance with a hierarchy of three classes of heirs:

  • First-class often referred to as the Quranic Heirs or Sharers; and
  • The second class includes grandparents and siblings. In the absence of siblings, nephews and nieces inherit.
  • The third class includes paternal and maternal aunts & uncles and their descendants.

Six heirs will always inherit if they survive the deceased and these are, husband/wife, son, daughter, father, and mother. A brief understanding is as follows:

  • A husband is entitled to half his deceased wife’s estate if she has no children. If she has children, he is entitled to a quarter share.
  • A wife is entitled to a quarter share of her deceased husband’s estate if she has no children. If she has children, she is entitled to one-eighth.
  • Sons usually inherit twice as much as their sisters when one of their parents dies.
  • The mother and father of the deceased are entitled to one-sixth of the share each if the deceased had children, if the deceased had no children, then the mother is entitled to one-third of the whole estate.

Finally, the disqualification of a rightful heir from inheritance can be enacted in the following two ways

  • A difference in religion between the heir and the parent
  • The homicide of the deceased by the heir

While the most crucial aspects of inheritance distribution have been covered, A more detailed understanding of the lawful ratio of the distribution of wealth in multiple scenarios can be found here.


Losing a loved one can be an extremely difficult time and the last thing a grieving soul wants to do is deal with the worldly repercussions of the death of their loved one, however, one must conjure the courage to go through with the distribution, as it is an act in the path of Allah.

Although the process used to be extremely tedious in previous years, presently, the process of obtaining the succession of the estate of a deceased person has been fairly simplified through recent legislation and can be followed through a quick five-stage process facilitated by Succession Facilitation Units operated by the National Database Registration Authority (NADRA). If you need more clarity or legal expertise, feel free to reach out to the best lawyers in Pakistan at Sardar & Co who can advise you and help you with the procedure.


Domestic Abuse, Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a pattern of behavior in familial relationships, used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. Domestic violence can include physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats that influence and terrorize another person. Domestic violence can include frightening, intimidating, manipulating, hurting, humiliating, blaming, hitting, injuring, or wounding someone. Here it is important to note that victims of domestic violence may also include children, relatives, or any other household member.

The Law Against Domestic Violence in Pakistan

Domestic violence is a pervasive issue in Pakistan, with an estimated 40% of women having reported experiencing abuse from a partner or family member. Despite the prevalence of this issue, there are very few laws in place to protect victims. In this article, we’ll explore what the law against domestic violence in Pakistan looks like and how it can be used to protect survivors. We’ll also discuss how NGOs and other organizations are fighting for better legislation and stronger enforcement of existing laws in order to ensure that all women have access to the justice they deserve.

The Types of Domestic Violence

  1. There are four types of domestic violence under Pakistani law: physical, mental, sexual, and economic.
  2. Physical domestic violence is when a person is physically harmed by their intimate partner. This can include hitting, kicking, burning, or using any other type of force against the victim.
  3. Mental domestic violence is when a person is psychologically harmed by their intimate partner. This can include verbal abuse, threats, intimidation, or controlling behavior.
  4. Sexual domestic violence is when a person is forced to participate in sexual activity against their will or without their consent. This can include rape, sexual assault, or unwanted sexual touching.
  5. Economic domestic violence is when a person is financially harmed by their intimate partner. This can include withholding money, preventing the victim from getting or keeping a job, or destroying property belonging to the victim.

The Domestic Violence Act

The Domestic Violence Act was passed in 2010 and criminalizes various forms of domestic violence, including physical, sexual, emotional, and economic abuse. The act also provides for protection orders and redressal mechanisms for victims of domestic violence.

What is considered domestic violence in Pakistan?

Domestic violence is a serious problem in Pakistan. According to a report by the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, over 1,000 women are killed each year in Pakistan as a result of domestic violence. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that there is no law against domestic violence in Pakistan.

While there is no specific law against domestic violence in Pakistan, there are a number of laws that can be used to prosecute perpetrators of domestic violence. These include the penal code, the criminal procedure code, and the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance.

The penal code contains provisions that can be used to prosecute perpetrators of domestic violence. For example, section 302 of the penal code deals with murder, and section 307 deals with attempted murder. Section 310 deals with hurt caused by dangerous weapons or means, and section 324 deals with voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means.

The criminal procedure code contains provisions that deal with procedures for arrests and bail in cases of domestic violence. Section 506 deals with punishment for criminal intimidation, and section 509 deals with punishment for using insulting words or gestures to provoke a breach of the peace.

The Muslim Family Laws Ordinance contains provisions that deal with marriage, divorce, custody, and maintenance in cases of domestic violence. For example, section 496-A deals with dowry demands made after marriage, and section 498-A deals with cruelty by husband or his relatives towards a wife.

Who can file a complaint of domestic violence?

In Pakistan, any woman who is a victim of domestic violence can file a complaint against her abuser. The first step is to contact the police and make a report. Once the police have been notified, they will investigate the abuse and determine whether there is enough evidence to file charges against the abuser. If there are sufficient grounds for doing so, the abuser will be arrested and taken into custody.

The next step is for the victim to file a petition with the court, which will then issue a protection order requiring the abuser to stay away from the victim and her family. The protection order can also include other provisions such as ordering the abuser to surrender any firearms he may have in his possession. If the abuser violates the protection order, he can be arrested and charged with contempt of court.

If you are a victim of domestic violence, it is important to know that you have legal options available to you. You should not hesitate to reach out for help if you are in an abusive situation.

What are the penalties for domestic violence in Pakistan?

Under Pakistani law, domestic violence is a criminal offense. The penalties for domestic violence depend on the severity of the offense and can range from a fine to imprisonment. In some cases, the offender may also be required to pay restitution to the victim.
If you are convicted of domestic violence in Pakistan, you may face any of the following penalties:

  • A fine of up to Rs. 100,000
  • Imprisonment for up to 2 years
  • Restitution to the victim
  • Probation

The Role of Islamic Law in Pakistan’s Legal System

Role of Islamic Laws in Pakistan's legal system

For many in the West, the concept of Islamic law — and its role in the legal systems of Muslim majority countries — is one that’s shrouded in mystery. But for countries like Pakistan, where approximately 96 percent of the population is Muslim, it’s a reality that shapes everyday life. In this blog post, we will explore the role of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system, how it has evolved over time, and how it interacts with (and influences) other aspects of Pakistani law. We’ll also discuss how advocates are working to bring awareness to issues related to religious discrimination and inequality within Pakistan’s legal structures. By understanding these topics, we can gain a better understanding of the complexities involved when dealing with Islamic Law and its implications for society.

What is Islamic law?

Islamic law, or Sharia, is the legal framework that governs the Muslim world. It is derived from the Quran and the Hadith, and is based on Islamic principles of justice.

  • Sharia covers all aspects of life, including family law, contract law, criminal law, and financial law. In Pakistan, Sharia is enshrined in the Constitution and forms the basis of the country’s legal system.
  • There are four main schools of thought in Islam: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali. Each school has its own interpretations of Sharia. In Pakistan, the Hanafi school is followed.
  • Islamic law is not static; it evolves over time in response to changing needs and circumstances. However, certain core principles remain constant, such as the prohibition on murder, theft, and adultery.
  • The role of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system is significant; it provides a framework for resolving disputes in accordance with Islamic principles of justice.

History of Pakistan’s Legal System

Pakistan’s legal system has its roots in the British colonial system. After the country’s independence in 1947, the Muslim majority of the population wanted Islamic law to be a part of the new nation’s legal system. This resulted in the incorporation of some Islamic laws into the existing statutory law.

In 1977, a military coup led by General Zia-ul-Haq ushered in a period of Islamization. During this time, more Islamic laws were incorporated into Pakistan’s legal system. In addition, sharia courts were established to hear cases involving family law and other personal status issues.

Although there have been some changes to Pakistan’s legal system since 1997, when civilian rule was re-established, it still remains heavily influenced by Islam. For example, sharia courts continue to operate alongside the regular court system and there are certain areas of law, such as family law and inheritance, that are still governed by Islamic law.

The current Legal system of Pakistan

Pakistan is an Islamic republic with a federal parliamentary system. The Constitution of Pakistan establishes Islam as the state religion and stipulates that all laws must be compatible with Muslim morality. However, the Constitution also guarantees equality and freedom of religion for all citizens.

The legal system of Pakistan is based on English common law, Sharia law, and customary law. Sharia law is derived from the Quran and Hadith (the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad). Pakistani lawyers and judges are trained in both common law and Sharia law.

Customary law consists of local traditions and customs that are not codified in either Sharia or common law. This includes traditional systems of dispute resolution, such as mediation and arbitration.

The court system in Pakistan consists of civil courts, criminal courts, and religious courts. Civil courts deal with matters such as divorce, child custody, property disputes, and contract disputes. Criminal courts deal with crimes such as murder, robbery, and assault. Religious courts deal with questions of personal status, such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and adoption.

Pakistan has a two-tiered court system: the High Courts are the appellate courts for all lower court decisions; the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal. There is also a Federal Shariat Court, which has jurisdiction over questions of Islamic law.

The structure of the Legal system in Pakistan

The legal system of Pakistan is a combination of both civil law and common law. The Constitution of Pakistan recognizes Islam as the state religion, and provides for a dual system of courts, with both secular and religious courts having Jurisdiction over certain matters.

Islamic law, or sharia, is the primary source of legislation in Pakistan. The Constitution requires that all laws be consistent with sharia, and gives the Council of Islamic Ideology (CII) a mandate to review all legislation to ensure compliance. In addition to serving as an advisory body, the CII also has the power to declare any existing law inconsistent with sharia, which would then be void.

Pakistan’s Supreme Court has held that sharia is a source of inspiration for Pakistani laws, but is not itself binding law. In practice, however, most laws are based on sharia principles. For example, the penal code includes provisions such as stoning for adultery and flogging for alcohol consumption, which are derived from sharia. There is also a separate court system for family law matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance, which is based on sharia principles.

The role of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system has been controversial. Critics argue that it discriminates against women and non-Muslims, and violates international human rights standards. Supporters contend that it is an important part of Pakistani culture and identity, and provides much needed clarity on personal status issues.

Importance of Islamic Laws in Pakistan

Under the Constitution of Pakistan, Islamic law is a source of legislation and the judiciary has the power to adjudicate disputes in accordance with it. However, the extent to which Islamic law is incorporated into the legal system varies depending on the particular legal issue and the jurisdiction in which it is being considered.

There are four main sources of Islamic law: the Quran, Hadith (sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad), Ijma (consensus of Muslim scholars) and Qiyas (analogical reasoning). In addition to these, there are also various secondary sources that may be used to interpret and apply Islamic law, such as Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Ijtihad (reasoning by independent legal scholars) and Usul al-Fiqh (the principles of Islamic jurisprudence).

The Quran is considered to be the highest authority in Islam and its verses contain general principles that are applicable to all aspects of life. The Hadith provide more specific guidance on how these principles should be applied in different situations. Where there is no clear guidance from either the Quran or Hadith, Muslim scholars have traditionally relied on consensus (ijma) or analogical reasoning (qiyas) to reach a decision.

In recent years, there has been an increased focus on using ijtihad to interpret Islamic law in a way that is relevant to contemporary issues and problems. This has led to the development of new schools of thought within

What are the pros and cons of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system?

There are a number of pros and cons to the role of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system. On the plus side, Islamic law is seen as a more equitable and just system than the British-based common law system that was in place before Pakistan’s independence. Islamic law also provides for a higher degree of personal freedoms than common law, particularly with regard to freedom of religion.

On the downside, some argue that the implementation of Islamic law in Pakistan has been imperfect, leading to discrimination against religious minorities and women. There is also concern that the increasing influence of Islamists in Pakistan could lead to further restrictions on personal freedoms and the imposition of strict moral codes.

In conclusion, the role of Islamic law in Pakistan’s legal system is significant and has evolved over time, with its incorporation into the country’s legal system beginning in the post-colonial period and continuing with the Islamization process under General Zia-ul-Haq. Today, Islamic law is recognized as a fundamental part of Pakistan’s legal system and is implemented through the Federal Shariat Court and sharia benches at the provincial and local levels. It covers a range of legal and social issues, including personal status, criminal law, and business transactions. While Islamic law is an important source of legislation in Pakistan, the country’s legal system also includes elements of English common law, customary law, and international law, leading to a complex and multifaceted system. Advocates are working to bring awareness to issues of religious discrimination and inequality within Pakistan’s legal structures, highlighting the ongoing importance and relevance of these issues.

What are Criminal Laws in Pakistan?

Handcuff - Criminal laws

Pakistan’s legal system is based on Islamic law, with criminal laws rooted in sharia. As such, the country has a unique set of laws that govern criminal offenses, punishments and more. In this blog post, we will take a closer look at what criminal laws are in Pakistan and how they differ from those in other countries. We will also discuss why these laws exist and the implications they have for citizens living in Pakistan. Read on to learn more about criminal laws in Pakistan and what they mean to you.

What is Criminal Law?

Criminal law is the body of law that pertains to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of one’s self. In Pakistan, criminal law is established by the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC), which is a comprehensive code that sets out the criminal offenses and penalties that apply throughout the country.


The most fundamental objective of criminal-law or the criminal justice system as a whole is to ensure that the guilty are punished and the innocent are acquitted. Criminal law also attempts to protect life and order in society by preventing crime. Above all, the criminal justice system stands on three pillars: investigation, prosecution, and trial which strives for a fair application of the law.

Who is criminal law applied to?

Criminal law is applied to adults (individuals above the age of eighteen), however, due to the method of age determination of children in Pakistan, they can also be considered and treated as adults in criminal-law. This has been internationally condemned and measures are being taken to uphold better practices in child legal law, but unfortunately, about ten percent of the current death row population in Pakistani jails consists of juvenile prisoners.

How is criminal law practically exercised all across Pakistan?

Understanding how criminal law is exercised across Pakistan requires us to delve deeper into the criminal-law system. The Criminal Justice System in Pakistan can be further categorized into five components i.e. the police, judiciary, prisons, prosecution, probation and parole. Moreover, the constitution of Pakistan dictates that the law and order in the country are the responsibility of the provinces that discharge it through their respective provincial governments. The provinces then manage the criminal justice system through the home and prosecution departments and ensure the just application of the law. Federally, there are measures to deal with inter-provincial coordination on criminal matters and it is carried out by the Ministry of Interior, furthermore, departments such as the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) have been established by the federal government to investigate and prosecute organized crimes of illegal immigration, human trafficking, cybercrime, etc.

While we can endlessly elaborate on the intricate details of the criminal justice system in Pakistan, the crux of the matter is that we need to understand the delegated nature of legislation as a mechanism, and what it means for people upholding the law in different provinces. All across Pakistan, the constitution is upheld, however, the intricate details which can affect a singular case will most likely be defined in the sub-articles and clauses of the provincial criminal-law. Thus, it is crucial to have knowledgeable and experienced representation for your case, which can deal with provincial and federal law complexities.

Issues with criminal law in Pakistan

Pakistan’s criminal justice system, as a whole, performs rather poorly compared to the rest of the world, in the Rule of Law Index for the Year 2017-18, compiled by the World Justice Project, shows that out of the 113 countries that were studied in terms of the overall performance, Pakistan ended up in the lower bracket at 105.  As a whole, there are a number of issues in the perceptions of government accountability, corruption across institutions, bribery victimization, fundamental freedom violations, crime victimization, criminal justice incompetency, and lack of legal awareness.

Although these issues span across the criminal justice system, criminal-law in itself being part of the said system is inherently affected by these issues as well. Keeping these shortcomings of the law in mind is crucial in practicing criminal-law, which is learnt through experience and wisdom of the law.

Who enforces criminal laws in Pakistan?

Pakistan’s criminal laws are enforced by the police. The police are responsible for investigating crimes and arresting suspects. They also work with the prosecutor to bring cases to court.

What are some common Pakistani criminal laws?

There are many different criminal laws in Pakistan, but some of the most common include:

  • Theft
  • Burglary
  • Robbery
  • Assault
  • Battery
  • Rape
  • Murder

What are the penalties for breaking Pakistani criminal laws?

If you break the Pakistani criminal law, you could face a number of penalties. These can include fines, imprisonment, or even execution. The specific penalty will depend on the nature of the crime and the circumstances surrounding it. For example, murder is punishable by death, while kidnapping can result in a prison sentence of up to 14 years.

Are there any exceptions to Pakistani criminal law?

There are a few exceptions to Pakistani criminal law. One exception is if the crime was committed in self-defense. Another exception is if the crime was committed under duress, meaning that the person committed the crime while under threats, violence, constraints, or other actions to coerce them.

What is the legal system in Pakistan?

The legal system of Pakistan is based on English common law, with some influences from Islamic law. The Constitution of Pakistan establishes the fundamental rights and freedoms of Pakistani citizens, and sets out the principles of the country’s legal system.

The Federal Shariat Court has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters in which Islam is a party, and can review any legislation to determine whether it is “repugnant to Islam”. All laws must be compatible with the Constitution and the Shariat Court can strike down any law it finds to be contrary to Islam.

Pakistan’s criminal laws are largely codified in the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC), which was enacted in 1860. The PPC covers a wide range of offences, from murder and theft to defamation and public nuisance. Many of these offences are also punishable under Islamic law.

The PPC contains a number of provisions that are specific to Pakistan, such as those relating to terrorism, honour killings and forced marriage. There are also a number of offences that are unique to Pakistan, such as those relating to blasphemy.

At Sardar & Co, clients can find an extremely knowledgeable, dedicated, and professional team of criminal lawyers who have handled numerous criminal cases and miscarriages of justice. Our team of lawyers guarantee that they will defend the rights of their clients in court, seeking to deliver the best possible outcome.